It is estimated that 5.8 cases per 100,000 individuals report primary patellar dislocation. Patients between 10 to 17 years of age increase the incidence of patellar dislocation to 29 cases per 100,000 individuals. Recurrent dislocations reportedly occur in 17% of all cases following a primary dislocation event. After a second dislocation, the chance of additional dislocations increases to approximately 50%. Due to this high risk, treatment is imperative for patients who experience recurrent patellofemoral dislocations because symptoms often do not spontaneously resolve.

Trochlear dysplasia is reportedly present in 85% of patients with patellar instability. For patients with chronic instability secondary to trochlear dysplasia, the trochleoplasty procedure can be an effective treatment option to permanently restore stability. This study highlights the basic anatomy and biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint, describes diagnostic imaging techniques to define and classify trochlear dysplasia, presents indications and surgical techniques for a sulcus-deepening trochleoplasty, and summarizes postsurgical outcomes.

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