Navnit S. Makaram, Iain R Murray, Andrew G Geeslin, Jorge Chahla, Gilbert Moatshe, Robert F LaPrade



To map the current literature evaluating the diagnosis and treatment of multiligament knee injuries (MLKIs).


Scoping review.

Data sources

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews and Arksey and O’Malley frameworks were followed. A three-step search strategy identified relevant published literature comprising studies reporting on at least one aspect in the diagnosis or treatment of MLKI in adults. Data were synthesised to form a descriptive analysis and thematic summary.


Overall, 417 studies were included. There was a substantial chronological increase in the number of studies published per year, with 70% published in the last 12 years. Of included studies, 128 (31%) were narrative reviews, editorials or technical notes with no original data. The majority of studies (n=239, 57%) originated from the USA; only 4 studies (1%) were of level I evidence. Consistent themes of contention included clinical assessment, imaging, operative strategy, timing of surgery and rehabilitation. There was a lack of gender and ethnic diversity reported within patient groups.


There remains insufficient high-level evidence to support definitive management strategies for MLKI. There is considerable heterogeneity in outcome reporting in current MLKI literature, precluding robust comparison, interpretation and pooling of data. Further research priorities include the development of expert consensus relating to the investigation, surgical management and rehabilitation of MLKI. There is a need for minimum reporting standards for clinical studies evaluating MLKI.

You may download the complete study here: Diagnosis and treatment strategies of the multiligament injured knee: a scoping review