The clock-face method to identify the femoral posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) attachment has poor accuracy and reproducibility. Measurements of clinically relevant anatomic structures would provide more useful surgical guidance. The purpose of this study was to describe the attachments of the anterolateral and posteromedial bundles of the PCL relative to relevant landmarks to assist with arthroscopic anatomic PCL reconstructions. During this study, dissections were performed on twenty non-paired fresh-frozen cadaveric knees. Clinical relevance: The results of the present study can assist with more anatomic tunnel placement during single and double-bundle PCL reconstructions. The results also suggest that two reconstruction tunnels are needed to reconstruct the broad femoral attachment, whereas one reconstruction tunnel should be investigated further for the compact tibial attachment.
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The purpose of the study was to evaluate the load output of a pressure sensor in the presence of liquid saturation in a controlled environment. We hypothesized that a calibrated pressure sensor would provide diminishing load outputs over time in controlled environments of both humidiﬁed air and while submerged in saline and the sensors would reach a steady state output once saturated. A consistent compressive load was repeatedly applied to pressure sensors over time with a tensile testing machine. All sensors were initially calibrated in a dry environment and were tested in three groups: humid air, submerged in 0.9% saline solution, and dry. Because outcomes in biomedical research can affect clinical practices and treatments, the diminishing load output of the sensor in the presence of liquids should be accounted for. We recommend soaking sensors for more than 48 hr prior to testing in a moist environment.
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